History of the Parthenon
In honor of the patroness of the city of Athens in the 5 st. BC. a majestic temple of marble was erected on top of a cliff. Athena Parthenos (in the translation of the Virgin) was magnified before, in her name was built a temple in gratitude for the help of the goddess in the battle with the Persians, which was marked by victory in the Marathon battle. In its place in 447 – 437 years BC. er a new, even more magnificent temple was erected. Grandiose amounts were involved in the construction. And they were withdrawn from the funds originally planned for the expansion of military affairs.
Politician Pericles glorified the unfading glory of Athens, not stint on expenses. Repeatedly the people accused him of waste, but Pericles was unmoved. The temple was designed to perpetuate the glory of the city and himself for many centuries. A huge amount was spent on all the construction, amounting to 450 silver talents in total. In those days, for 1 talent it was possible to build a trireme, the so-called warship. That is, instead of the temple of Athena, it was possible to receive a whole fleet of 450 warships. In the end, the people agreed that construction costs would be deducted from the general account.
For such a monumental temple and the sculptor was chosen appropriate. They became Phidias, who did most of the decoration work on his own. After the construction was completed, the temple was finally illuminated to coincide with the celebration of Panathinaea.
In the Byzantine period, Christianity triumphed, and the Parthenon of Athens was turned into the Temple of St. Mary. The central statue was taken to Constantinople. Still later in 1460, the temple was again converted, this time into a mosque. At this time, the Turks captured Athens. But the war of the Venetians with the Turks brought the greatest damage to the Parthenon. In 1687 the cannonball pierced the roof and exploded inside the temple. Most of the decorations of the building were destroyed. The remaining sculptures were taken to England in the nineteenth century, where it is still kept.
The magnificence of the Doric style
The Parthenon temple was built in the classical ancient Greek style – a colonnade around a rectangular building. There were certain standards by which the number of columns in a building was calculated. In the Parthenon, the number of columns of the side facade is 8, respectively, on the front side should be twice as much plus 1. Total is exactly 17. The ancient architects put all their skills to give the temple elegance. To eliminate the illusion of concave lines, the architects made the middle part of the columns thickened, and the corner columns slightly tilted.
Myths, frozen in the stones of the Parthenon
Bas-reliefs with scenes of martial arts decorated the frieze of the facade of the temple. On the eastern side of the building, the battle of the Lapiths and the centaurs was reproduced, the battle of the Greeks and the Amazons was perpetuated on the southern side, the struggle of gods and giants was glorified on the northern side, and the Trojan War was celebrated on the western side. According to legend, the gods are born in an unusual way. Legend has it that the supreme god Zeus swallowed his pregnant wife. He feared the birth of his son, since it was predicted that it was his son who would overthrow him from the throne. Sensing a severe headache, Zeus turned for help to the blacksmith Hephaestus and he hit him on the head. Athena jumped out of the crack. The names of this picture are depicted on the eastern gable of the Parthenon.
On the west gable stone statues tell visitors about the Athena and Poseidon dispute. The goddess of wisdom surpassed the god of the sea in mastery in the controversy over the possession of Attica. The olive tree grown by Athena has become more valuable than the source of water. Along the outer perimeter of the temple, the Ionic frieze stretched. From a height of 11 meters, his reliefs depicted scenes of the celebration of Panafinei. Here are images of horsemen, musicians, people with gifts and sacrificial animals. At the end of the festival, the priest accepts peplos, a new garment for Athena. This picture is depicted on the eastern end of the building.